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by Grzegorz Lochnicki and Nicolas Kubail Kalousdian

The year is 2048.

Sixty percent of the human population is already augmented. Internally, through biological modifications, and externally, through modular exoskeletons. The biodiversity of the world shrinks as the gap between species grows.

However, in the fringes of society, there is an idea permeating the minds of the populace. Some believe that bio-diversity is already a thing of the past. Dead. Others believe that through augmentation and artificial adaptation evolution can be altered from a natural process to a cybernetic one...

Governments have been augmenting various animals for espionage and warfare for at least five decades. In an attempt to secure the data developed from these experiments, they saved it outside of the grid into an archaic physical form, a solid state drive. The data you are about to witness was recovered from such a drive.

It is believed that this drive was en-route to a low orbit server station, XXX. However, it seems that it never reached its intended destination. Burn marks on the drive's capsule indicate that there was a malfunction on the autonomous delivery drone that carried it.

It was lost to the whims of the earth's orbit. Until now. The manuscript you are about to read was found deep in the emergent rain-forest of Siberia. Some critical parts of the experiment's results are missing, however, most of instructional data remains intact.


  • 24 x M6 Nuts
  • 24 x 20mm M6 Washers
  • 1 x 1m M6 Threaded Rod
  • 1 x 300x250x8mm Plywood sheet
  • 1 x Small transparent tape
  • 4 x M4 Bolts
  • 4 x 7mm M4 Spacers
  • 4 x 5mm Wood Screws
  • 1 x Small Cable-Tie
  • 1 x Strong Double Sided Table
  • 2 x Kitchen Sponge
  • 2 x Rubber Bands

Wheel Axle:

  • 6 x M6 Nuts
  • 2 x M6 Washers
  • 2 x 30mm M6 Threaded Rod
  • 2 x M6 Couplers with Set Screws
  • 8 x 5mm Wood Screws

Control Center:

  • 1 x 250x250x2mm Vivak (plexi) sheet
  • 1 x 9cm by 4 cm piece of lightweight mesh fabric
  • 1 x Insect (Arthropod, Caelifera, etc..)


  • 1 x Arduino Uno
  • 1 x L298N Motor Driver
  • 1 x BNO055 Absolute Orientation Sensor
  • 2 x HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor
  • 2 x 919D Series DC Motors (11:1 Gear Ratio)
  • 1 x Female Barrel Plug
  • 1 x Male Barrel Plug
  • 1 x 12V 4A< Power Supply
  • 2 x Double Screw Terminals
  • 1 x Wago Connector
  • Jumper Cables
  • 1 x 20m Red-Black Power Wire (0.4mm)
  • 1 x Mini-Breadboard

Step 1: Theory

Picture of Theory

The problem of a self-balancing robot is that of an inverted pendulum. In order to counter-act the force of the robot falling either forwards or backwards we need a mechanism which will keep its center of gravity directly above the point in which it pivots. This pivot point would be our wheel axle. Our strategy of counter-action will be conducted by driving the robot's wheels in the direction in which it is falling.

However, the problem dosnt stop there. If we have a simple feedback loop which checks which direction the robot is falling and drive the wheels in that direction our robot will inherently oscillate and crash.

So our strategy will involve implementing a PID controller to drive the wheels back and forth in a controlled, mathematical manner, one that responds to the direction in which the robot is falling, the speed with which it falls, the amount it has tilted so far, and the relationship between all of these three variables over time.

The specifics on how this is implemented will be further explained in the PID section of this instructable.

please insert "ino" code file
Texas_Mike4 months ago
Good Job...Love the Intro :)
Muzammal Baig4 months ago
Nice instructable. As I know, there is a PID AUTOTUNE library available for the Arduino. Maybe it could be assessed for this project.
seawarrior1814 months ago
Very well done Instructable. I have built a couple of balancing robots, one that works and one that does not work, and I can appreciate all of the time and effort required to get it right. Creative writing! Thanks for sharing.
Very fun little rolling guy! I like watching the video of it :)